A review of the legal framework in shallow geothermal energy in selected European countries: Need for guidelines

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Over the past years, the installations of Shallow Geothermal Energy (SGE) systems are increasing throughout Europe, and it is indicating that a specific and detailed legal framework is necessary. Towards this direction, this paper consists of an overview of legislation issues on SGE at European level, based on concise reviews from fourteen countries, i.e., Croatia, Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey. Said reviews discuss key national legislation as well as experts’ experience in the procedure of SGE integration. Legal and technical issues are also critically discussed for all involved countries, both individually and collectively. Findings show that high diversity exists on legislation provisions as well as on regulations, standards, and institutional support amongst European countries. The latter acts as an effective barrier for the further development of the SGE market; therefore indicating the need for a common approach. Increase of awareness, need for standardization, improvement of legal framework, and administration procedures and permitting, are essential steps in moving forward and supporting the effectiveness of design, construction, maintenance, and operation of SGE systems.


  • Konstantinos P. Tsagarakis
  • Loukia Efthymiou
  • Apostolos Michopoulos
  • Amaryllis Mavragani
  • Aleksandar S. Anđelković
  • Francesco Antolini
  • Mario Bacic
  • Diana Bajare
  • Matteo Baralis
  • Witold Bogusz
  • Sébastien Burlon
  • João Figueira
  • M. Serdar Genç
  • Saqib Javed
  • Andrius Jurelionis
  • Kemal Koca
  • Grzegorz Ryżyński
  • Javier F. Urchueguia
  • Bojan Žlender
External organisations
  • Democritus University of Thrace
  • Cyprus University of Technology
  • University of Cyprus
  • University of Novi Sad
  • Polytechnic University of Turin
  • University of Zagreb
  • Riga Technical University
  • Building Research Institute (ITB)
  • Terrasol
  • Instituto Superior Técnico
  • Erciyes University
  • Kaunas University of Technology
  • Polish Geological Institute
  • Polytechnic University of Valencia
  • University of Maribor
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Building Technologies


  • Ground source heat pump, Legislation, Permitting, Regulations, Shallow geothermal energy systems
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2556-2571
Number of pages16
JournalRenewable Energy
Issue numberPart 2
Early online date2018
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Mar
Publication categoryResearch