A safety assessment of branched chain saturated alcohols when used as fragrance ingredients

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


The Branched Chain Saturated Alcohol (BCSA) group of fragrance ingredients was evaluated for safety. In humans, no evidence of skin irritation was found at concentrations of 2-10%. Undiluted, 11 materials evaluated caused moderate to severe eye irritation. As current end product use levels are between 0.001% and 1.7%, eye irritation is not a concern. The materials have no or low sensitizing potential. For individuals who are already sensitized, an elicitation reaction is possible. Due to lack of UVA/UVB light-absorbing structures, and review of phototoxic/photoallergy data, the BCSA are not expected to elicit phototoxicity or photoallergy. The 15 materials tested have a low order of acute toxicity. Following repeated application, seven BCSA tested were of low systemic toxicity. Studies performed on eight BCSA and three metabolites show no in vivo or in vitro genotoxicity. A valid carcinogenicity study showed that 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is a weak inducer of liver tumors in female mice, however, the relevance of this effect and mode of action to humans is still a matter of debate. The Panel is of the opinion that there are no safety concerns regarding BCSA under the present levels of use and exposure. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


  • D. Belsito
  • D. Bickers
  • Magnus Bruze
  • P. Calow
  • H. Greim
  • J. M. Hanifin
  • A. E. Rogers
  • J. H. Saurat
  • I. G. Sipes
  • H. Tagami
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Pharmacology and Toxicology


  • Branched chain saturated alcohols, Fragrance ingredients, Review, Safety
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S1-S46
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Publication categoryResearch