A Study on Local Cooling of Garments with Ventilation Fans and Openings Placed at Different Torso Sites

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Abstract in Undetermined
The aim of the study was to examine the various design features of ventilated
garments on cooling performance. Five jackets with small ventilation units and
closable openings were designed. The ventilation units with a flow rate of 12 l/s were
placed at five different torso sites. They were examined on a sweating thermal
manikin in four clothing opening conditions in a warm environment
(Ta=Tmanikin=34 °C, RH=60 %, Va=0.4 m/s). Total torso cooling was increased by 137
to 251 %, and clothing total dynamic evaporative resistance was decreased by 43 to
69 %. Neither the ventilation location nor the opening design had a significant
difference on total torso cooling. The ventilation location had a significant difference
on localized intra-torso cooling, but not the opening design. When the ventilation
units were placed at the local zone where it was ventilated, that zone underwent the
highest cooling than other local zones. The study indicated that the ventilation units
should be placed at the region where it required the most evaporative cooling, e.g.
along the spine area and the lower back. The openings could be adjusted (closed or
opened) to make comfortable air pressure for the wearers but without making
significant difference on the whole torso cooling under this flow rate.


  • Mengmeng Zhao
  • Chuansi Gao
  • Faming Wang
  • Kalev Kuklane
  • Ingvar Holmér
  • Jun Li
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics


  • Local cooling, Ventilation, Opening, Evaporation
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)232-237
JournalInternational Journal of Industrial Ergonomics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Publication categoryResearch