A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of cinnamyl phenylpropyl materials when used as fragrance ingredients

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


The cinnamyl phenylpropyl fragrance ingredients are a diverse group of chemical structures that have similar metabolic and toxicity profiles. A toxicological and dermatological review of these fragrance ingredients is presented. The common characteristic structural element of cinnamyl phenylpropyl materials is an aryl substituted primary alcohol/aldehyde/ester. For high end users, calculated maximum dermal exposures vary from 0.14% to 0.72%; systemic exposures vary from 0.0002 to 0.0280 mg/kg/day. Human dermatological studies show that these materials are not generally irritants or sensitizers at lower exposures from consumer products. Reactions (0.9%) in fragrance sensitive patients were observed with 3-phenyl-1-propanol at 5% in petrolatum. The cinnamyl phenylpropyl materials had low acute toxicity and no significant toxicity in repeat dose oral or dermal toxicity studies. No mutagenic or genotoxic activity in bacteria and mammalian cell line assays was observed. The cinnamyl phenylpropyl alcohol materials participate in the same beta oxidation pathways as their parent cinnamic acid derivatives, including common routes of absorption, distribution, and metabolic detoxification, and exhibit similar toxicological endpoints. Based on the review of available data, it is concluded that these materials would not present a safety concern at current levels of use as fragrance ingredients. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


  • D. Belsito
  • D. Bickers
  • Magnus Bruze
  • P. Calow
  • M. Dagli
  • A. D. Fryer
  • H. Greim
  • Y. Miyachi
  • J. H. Saurat
  • I. G. Sipes
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Pharmacology and Toxicology


  • Review, Safety, Fragrance ingredients, Cinnamyl phenylpropyl
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S256-S267
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Issue numberSuppl. 2
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Publication categoryResearch