A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of cyclopentanones and cyclopentenones when used as fragrance ingredients

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

The cyclopentanone and cyclopentenone group of fragrance ingredients was critically evaluated for safety following a complete literature search. For high end users, calculated maximum dermal exposures vary from 0.002% to 15.16% in hydroalcoholic products; systemic exposures vary from 0.0003 to 0.7122 mg/kg/day. The cyclopentanones and cyclopentenones had a low order of acute toxicity and no significant toxicity in repeat dose studies. No mutagenic or genotoxic activity in bacteria and mammalian cell line assays was observed. Developmental toxicity was not observed. Minimal evidence of skin irritation in humans is associated with current levels of use. Eleven materials were tested undiluted for eye irritation; three were considered irritants. No phototoxic and photosensitization reactions were seen with nine materials tested. At concentrations higher than current reported use, 14 materials were non-sensitizing in HRIPT or maximization tests. 2-Hexylidene cyclopentanone, 2-heptylidenecyclopentan-1-one and 3-methyl-2-(pentyloxy)-2-cyclopenten-1-one are weak sensitizers and have IFRA Standards. Risk of sensitization to the cyclopentanones and cyclopentenones is generally small under current levels of use. The Panel is of the opinion that there are no safety concerns for the cyclopentanones and cyclopentenones at reported levels of use and exposure as fragrance ingredients. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Details

Authors
  • D. Belsito
  • D. Bickers
  • Magnus Bruze
  • P. Calow
  • M. L. Dagli
  • W. Dekant
  • A. D. Fryer
  • H. Greim
  • Y. Miyachi
  • J. H. Saurat
  • I. G. Sipes
Organisations
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Pharmacology and Toxicology

Keywords

  • Fragrance material, Group summary, Ketones, Cyclopentanones, Cyclopentenones, Review
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S517-S556
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume50
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Publication categoryResearch
Peer-reviewedYes