Accuracy of GFR estimating equations combining standardized cystatin C and creatinine assays: a cross-sectional study in Sweden

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Abstract

Background: The recently established international cystatin C calibrator makes it possible to develop non-laboratory specific glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating (eGFR) equations. This study compares the performance of the arithmetic mean of the revised Lund-Malmo creatinine and CAPA cystatin C equations (MEAN(LM-REV+CAPA)), the arithmetic mean of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (CKD-EPI) creatinine and cystatin C equations (MEAN(CKD-EPI)), and the composite CKD-EPI equation (CKD-EPICREA+CYSC) with the corresponding single marker equations using internationally standardized calibrators for both cystatin C and creatinine. Methods: The study included 1200 examinations in 1112 adult Swedish patients referred for measurement of GFR (mGFR) 2008-2010 by plasma clearance of iohexol (median 51 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Bias, precision (interquartile range, IQR) and accuracy (percentage of estimates +/- 30% of mGFR; P-30) were compared. Results: Combined marker equations were unbiased and had higher precision and accuracy than single marker equations. Overall results of MEAN(LM-REV+CAPA)/MEAN(CKD-EPI)/CKD-EPICREA+CYSC were: median bias -2.2%/-0.5%/-1.6%, IQR 9.2/9.2/8.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and P-30 91.3%/91.0%/91.1%. The P-30 figures were about 7-14 -percentage points higher than the single marker equations. The combined equations also had a more stable performance across mGFR, age and BMI intervals, generally with P-30 >= 90% and never <80%. Combined equations reached P-30 of 95% when the difference between eGFR(CREA) and eGFR(CYSC) was <10% but decreased to 82% at a difference of >= 40%. Conclusions: Combining cystatin C and creatinine assays improves GFR estimations with P-30 >= 90% in adults. Reporting estimates of both single and combined marker equations in clinical settings makes it possible to assess the validity of the combined equation based on the agreement between the single marker equations.

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Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Clinical Laboratory Medicine

Keywords

  • chronic kidney disease, creatinine, cystatin C, glomerular filtration, rate, kidney function tests
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)403-414
JournalClinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
Volume53
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Publication categoryResearch
Peer-reviewedYes