Activated Protein C-Protein C Inhibitor Complex in Peripheral Arterial Disease.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Thrombin activation measured by the levels of the complex between activated protein C (APC) and the protein C inhibitor (PCI) is elevated in several atherosclerotic disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether levels of the APC-PCI complex are related to the prognosis in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Longitudinal study performed at the Vascular Centre, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden. METHODS: APC-PCI complex levels were analyzed in 268 consecutive patients hospitalized for PAD and in 42 healthy controls (median age, 74 years). Patients (n = 35) with warfarin treatment less than 4 weeks before APC-PCI sampling were excluded from analysis. Data-based medical records of all 233 remaining patients (median age, 72 [64-79] years) were searched for vascular events such as hospitalization because of atherosclerotic disease, operative or endovascular recanalization of peripheral arteries, transtibial or transfemoral amputation because of PAD, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, or death. RESULTS: Median duration of follow-up was 16 months (interquartile range, 12-23 months). APC-PCI complex levels were higher in PAD patients than in controls (0.240 [0.180-0.320] mug/L vs. 0.140 [0.190-0.220] mug/L; p < 0.0001) but not associated with an increased risk for death (p = 0.2054) or events during follow-up (p = 0.2850). Independent predictors of future events were low b-hemoglobin (p = 0.0084), high b-leukocytes (p = 0.0034), and history of a previous vascular event (p = 0.0032). Age (p = 0.0286), high p-creatinine (p = 0.0165), and history of a previous event (p = 0.0311) were independent predictors of death. CONCLUSION: APC-PCI complex levels were higher in PAD patients than in controls, but did not predict the clinical outcome. The effect of a possible prethrombotic state, as reflected in increased APC-PCI levels, on prognosis and severity of atherosclerotic disease has to be further investigated.

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  • Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)588-595
JournalAnnals of Vascular Surgery
VolumeMay 4
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Publication categoryResearch
Peer-reviewedYes