Activation of maternal Epstein-Barr virus infection and risk of acute leukemia in the offspring

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title = "Activation of maternal Epstein-Barr virus infection and risk of acute leukemia in the offspring",
abstract = "After identifying an association between maternal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the authors analyzed a nested case-control study within Finnish and Icelandic maternity cohorts with 7 million years of follow-up to confirm EBV's role in ALL. Offspring of 550,000 mothers were followed up to age 15 years during 1975-1997 by national cancer registries to identify leukemia cases. Mothers of cases and three quarters of matched mothers of controls were identified by national population registers. First-trimester sera from mothers of 304 ALL cases and 39 non-ALL cases and from 943 mothers of controls were analyzed for antibodies to viral capsid antigen, early antigen, and EBV transactivator protein ZEBRA. Relative risk, estimated as odds ratio (95{\%} confidence interval), was adjusted for birth order and sibship size. Combining early antigen and/or ZEBRA immunoglobulin G antibodies with the presence of viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin M antibodies did not increase the estimate for ALL risk for viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin M alone (odds ratio = 1.9, 95{\%} confidence interval: 1.2, 3.0). Both ZEBRA immunoglobulin G antibodies and viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin M antibodies were associated with an increased risk of non-ALL in the offspring (odds ratio = 4.5, 95{\%} confidence interval: 1.3, 16; odds ratio = 5.6, 95{\%} confidence interval: 1.1, 29, respectively), suggesting EBV reactivation in the mothers of non-ALL cases. EBV reactivation may be associated with a proportion of childhood leukemia.",
keywords = "case-control studies, antibodies, child, Epstein-Barr virus infections, Iceland, Finland, leukemia, lymphocytic, acute",
author = "Rosamaria Tedeschi and Aini Bloigu and Ogmundsdottir, {Helga M.} and Alessia Marus and Joakim Dillner and Paolo dePaoli and Margret Gudnadottir and Pentti Koskela and Eero Pukkala and Tuula Lehtinen and Matti Lehtinen",
year = "2007",
doi = "10.1093/aje/kwj332",
language = "English",
volume = "165",
pages = "134--137",
journal = "American journal of hygiene",
issn = "0002-9262",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "2",