Agreement between TOAST and CCS ischemic stroke classification The NINDS SiGN Study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of agreement between stroke subtype classifications made using the Trial of Org 10172 Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) and Causative Classification of Stroke (CCS) systems. Methods: Study subjects included 13,596 adult men and women accrued from 20 US and European genetic research centers participating in the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN). All cases had independently classified TOAST and CCS stroke subtypes. Kappa statistics were calculated for the 5 major ischemic stroke subtypes common to both systems. Results: The overall agreement between TOAST and CCS was moderate (agreement rate, 70%; kappa = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58-0.60). Agreement varied widely across study sites, ranging from 28% to 90%. Agreement on specific subtypes was highest for large-artery atherosclerosis (kappa = 0.71, 95% CI 0.69-0.73) and lowest for small-artery occlusion (kappa = 0.56, 95% CI 0.54-0.58). Conclusion: Agreement between TOAST and CCS diagnoses was moderate. Caution is warranted when comparing or combining results based on the 2 systems. Replication of study results, for example, genome-wide association studies, should utilize phenotypes determined by the same classification system, ideally applied in the same manner.


  • Patrick F. McArdle
  • Steven J. Kittner
  • Hakan Ay
  • Robert D. Brown Jr.
  • James F. Meschia
  • Tatjana Rundek
  • Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller
  • Daniel Woo
  • Alessandro Biffi
  • David A. Brenner
  • John W. Cole
  • Roderick Corriveau
  • Paul I. W. de Bakker
  • Martin Dichgans
  • Raji P. Grewal
  • Katrina Gwinn
  • Mohammed Huq
  • Christina Jern
  • Jordi Jimenez-Conde
  • Katarina Jood
  • Robert C. Kaplan
  • Petra Katschnig
  • Michael Katsnelson
  • Daniel L. Labovitz
  • Robin Lemmens
  • Linxin Li
  • Hugh S. Markus
  • Leema R. Peddareddygari
  • Annie Pedersen
  • Joanna Pera
  • Petra Redfors
  • Jaume Roquer
  • Jonathan Rosand
  • Natalia S. Rost
  • Peter M. Rothwell
  • Ralph L. Sacco
  • Pankaj Sharma
  • Agnieszka Slowik
  • Cathie Sudlow
  • Vincent Thijs
  • Steffen Tiedt
  • Raffaella Valenti
  • Bradford B. Worrall
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Neurology
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1653-1660
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Publication categoryResearch