Ambivalent stereotypes link to peace, conflict and inequality across 38 nations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


A cross-national study, 49 samples in 38 nations, N=4,344, investigates whether national peace and conflict reflect ambivalent warmth-competence stereotypes: High-conflict societies (Pakistan) may need clearcut, unambivalent group images-distinguishing friends from foes. Highly peaceful countries (Denmark) also may need less ambivalence because most groups occupy the shared national identity, with only a few outcasts. Finally, nations with intermediate conflict (U.S.) may need ambivalence to justify more complex intergroup-system stability. Using the Global Peace Index to measure conflict, a curvilinear (quadratic) relationship between ambivalence and conflict highlights how both extremely peaceful and extremely conflictual countries display lower stereotype ambivalence, whereas countries intermediate on peace-conflict
present higher ambivalence. These data also replicated a linear inequality-ambivalence relationship.


  • Federica Durante
  • Susan T Fiske
  • Michele Gelfand
  • Franca Crippa
  • Chiara Suttora
  • Amelia Stillwell
  • Frank Asbrock
  • Zeynep Aycan
  • Hege H Bye
  • Rickard Carlsson
  • Fredrik Björklund
  • Munqith Daghir
  • Armando Geller
  • Christian Albrekt Larsen
  • Hamid Latif
  • Tuuli Anna Mähönen
  • Inga Jasinskaja-Lahti
  • Ali Teymoori
External organisations
  • University of Milano-Bicocca
  • Princeton University
  • University of Maryland
  • Stanford University
  • Chemnitz University of Technology
  • Koc University
  • Linnaeus University
  • Independent Institute for Administration and Civil Society Studies (IACSS)
  • Scensei (Switzerland) GmbH
  • Aalborg University
  • The Egyptian Research and Training Center
  • University of Helsinki
  • University of Bordeaux
  • University of Bergen
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Psychology


  • stereotypes, peace, conflict, inequality, ambivalence
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)669–674
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Issue number4
Early online date2017 Jan 9
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Publication categoryResearch