Amniotic fluid INSL3 measured during the critical time window in human pregnancy relates to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phthalate load: A large case-control study

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Amniotic fluid INSL3 measured during the critical time window in human pregnancy relates to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phthalate load : A large case-control study. / Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Cohen, Arieh; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hougaard, David M.; Lindh, Christian H.; Toft, Gunnar; Lindhard, Morten S.; Ivell, Richard.

In: Frontiers in Physiology, Vol. 9, No. APR, 406, 24.04.2018.

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Anand-Ivell, R., Cohen, A., Nørgaard-Pedersen, B., Jönsson, B. A. G., Bonde, J. P., Hougaard, D. M., Lindh, C. H., Toft, G., Lindhard, M. S., & Ivell, R. (2018). Amniotic fluid INSL3 measured during the critical time window in human pregnancy relates to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phthalate load: A large case-control study. Frontiers in Physiology, 9(APR), [406]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00406

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Anand-Ivell, Ravinder ; Cohen, Arieh ; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent ; Jönsson, Bo A.G. ; Bonde, Jens Peter ; Hougaard, David M. ; Lindh, Christian H. ; Toft, Gunnar ; Lindhard, Morten S. ; Ivell, Richard. / Amniotic fluid INSL3 measured during the critical time window in human pregnancy relates to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phthalate load : A large case-control study. In: Frontiers in Physiology. 2018 ; Vol. 9, No. APR.

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Amniotic fluid INSL3 measured during the critical time window in human pregnancy relates to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phthalate load

T2 - A large case-control study

AU - Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

AU - Cohen, Arieh

AU - Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent

AU - Jönsson, Bo A.G.

AU - Bonde, Jens Peter

AU - Hougaard, David M.

AU - Lindh, Christian H.

AU - Toft, Gunnar

AU - Lindhard, Morten S.

AU - Ivell, Richard

PY - 2018/4/24

Y1 - 2018/4/24

N2 - The period of the first to second trimester transition in human pregnancy represents a sensitive window for fetal organogenesis, particularly in regard to the development of the male reproductive system. This is a time of relative analytical inaccessibility. We have used a large national biobank of amniotic fluid samples collected at routine amniocentesis to determine the impacts of exogenous endocrine disruptor load on specific fetal biomarkers at this critical time. While adrenal and testicular steroids are highly correlated, they are also mostly positively influenced by increasing phthalate load, represented by the metabolites 7cx-MMeHP and 5cx-MEPP, by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure, and by smoking, suggesting an adrenal stress response. In contrast, the testis specific biomarkers insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and androstenedione are negatively impacted by the phthalate endocrine disruptors. Using a case-control design, we show that cryptorchidism and hypospadias are both significantly associated with increased amniotic concentration of INSL3 during gestational weeks 13-16, and some, though not all steroid biomarkers. Cases are also linked to a specifically increased variance in the Leydig cell biomarker INSL3 compared to controls, an effect exacerbated by maternal smoking. No influence of phthalate metabolites or PFOS was evident on the distribution of cases and controls. Considering that several animal and human studies have shown a negative impact of phthalate load on fetal and cord blood INSL3, respectively, the present results suggest that such endocrine disruptors may rather be altering the relative dynamics of testicular development and consequent hormone production, leading to a desynchronization of tissue organization during fetal development. Being born small for gestational age appears not to impact on the testicular biomarker INSL3 in second trimester amniotic fluid.

AB - The period of the first to second trimester transition in human pregnancy represents a sensitive window for fetal organogenesis, particularly in regard to the development of the male reproductive system. This is a time of relative analytical inaccessibility. We have used a large national biobank of amniotic fluid samples collected at routine amniocentesis to determine the impacts of exogenous endocrine disruptor load on specific fetal biomarkers at this critical time. While adrenal and testicular steroids are highly correlated, they are also mostly positively influenced by increasing phthalate load, represented by the metabolites 7cx-MMeHP and 5cx-MEPP, by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure, and by smoking, suggesting an adrenal stress response. In contrast, the testis specific biomarkers insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and androstenedione are negatively impacted by the phthalate endocrine disruptors. Using a case-control design, we show that cryptorchidism and hypospadias are both significantly associated with increased amniotic concentration of INSL3 during gestational weeks 13-16, and some, though not all steroid biomarkers. Cases are also linked to a specifically increased variance in the Leydig cell biomarker INSL3 compared to controls, an effect exacerbated by maternal smoking. No influence of phthalate metabolites or PFOS was evident on the distribution of cases and controls. Considering that several animal and human studies have shown a negative impact of phthalate load on fetal and cord blood INSL3, respectively, the present results suggest that such endocrine disruptors may rather be altering the relative dynamics of testicular development and consequent hormone production, leading to a desynchronization of tissue organization during fetal development. Being born small for gestational age appears not to impact on the testicular biomarker INSL3 in second trimester amniotic fluid.

KW - Amniotic fluid

KW - Cryptorchidism

KW - Fetal steroids

KW - Hypospadias

KW - INSL3

KW - PFOS

KW - Phthalate

KW - Testicular dysgenesis syndrome

U2 - 10.3389/fphys.2018.00406

DO - 10.3389/fphys.2018.00406

M3 - Article

C2 - 29740335

AN - SCOPUS:85045916527

VL - 9

JO - Frontiers in Physiology

JF - Frontiers in Physiology

SN - 1664-042X

IS - APR

M1 - 406

ER -