Analysis of 3,5-dichloroaniline as a biomarker of vinclozolin and iprodione in human urine using liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

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The fungicides vinclozolin and iprodione are widely used in agriculture. These pesticides are dicarboximide fungicides containing the common moiety 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA). It ha; been suggested that low-level exposures to such compounds may be associated with adverse health effects such as endocrine disruption. In this study a method using liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed for the analysis of 3,5-DCA as a biomarker of exposure to these fungicides in human urine. The urine samples were treated by basic hydrolysis to degrade the fungicides, their metabolites and conjugates to 3,5-DCA. The 3,5-DCA was then extracted using toluene and derivatized using pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA). Analysis of the derivative was carried out using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in the negative ion mode. Quantification of the derivative was performed using [C-13(6)]-labeled 3,4-DCA as an internal standard with good precision and linearity in the range 0.1-200 ng/mL urine. The limit of detection was determined to be 0.1 ng/mL. The metabolites in urine were found to be stable during storage at -20 degrees C. To validate 3,5-DCA as a biomarker the method was applied in a human experimental exposure to iprodione and vinclozolin. Two healthy volunteers received 200 jig single oral doses of each pesticide followed by urine sampling during 72-120 h post-exposure. Between 78-107% of the dose was recovered as 3,5-DCA in the urine after exposure.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Environmental Health and Occupational Health
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)536-542
JournalRapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Publication categoryResearch

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