Aspects of infant food factors on intestinal inflammation and effects of probiotics in celiac disease autoimmunity

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis (compilation)


Aims: The overall aim of this thesis was to study dietary components with focus on exposure and ability to affect gut
permeability, peripheral immune response and gut microbiota in children at genetic risk of developing CD. The
specific aims were to study presence of food components that might induce intestinal inflammation, evaluate
possible effects on intestinal permeability by food emulsifiers, investigate if two different strains of Lactobacillaceae
affect ongoing CD autoimmunity and gut microbiota composition.
Methods: Porridges and milk cereal drinks were analysed for presence of endotoxins. The quantity of bacteria was
determined using culturing methods and identified with Sanger sequencing. Enterotoxin producing genes were
analysed through multiplex PCR. Modification of intestinal permeability ex vivo in rat by emulsifiers were determined
with Ussing diffusion chamber. Changes in immune response after intake of probiotic bacteria or placebo in 78
children with CDA were measured using flow cytometry while changes in tissue transglutaminase autoantibody
levels were measured in radioligand binding assays. Effects of probiotic intake on the gut microbiota were
determined by 16SrRNA sequencing.
Results: Endotoxin concentrations ranged from 1400 to 24200 EU/g powder and bacteria were present in all
products. Polysorbate 80 (P80) was able to increase the permeability in the rat intestine ex vivo to a greater extent
compared with carboxymethyl cellulose and beta-lactoglobulin. The probiotic bacteria seemed to inhibit the
peripheral immune response in children with CDA compared with placebo and affected the gut microbiota towards
a composition more similar to healthy controls.
Conclusion: Endotoxins are present in powdered infant cereal-based foods and the amount of living bacteria might
be substantial. P80 appeared to increase the intestinal permeability ex vivo in rat more compared with the other
emulsifiers. Probiotic supplementation decreased the level of NKT-cells in children with CDA and influenced the
abundance of specific bacterial amplicon sequence variants in the gut microbiota.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Pediatrics


  • Endotoxin, food emulsifiers, intestinal permeability, probiotics, celiac disease, celiac disease autoimmunity
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
Supervisors/Assistant supervisor
Award date2021 Jan 29
Place of PublicationLund
  • Lund University, Faculty of Medicine
Print ISBNs978-91-8021-013-3
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Publication categoryResearch

Bibliographic note

Defence details Date: 2021-01-29 Time: 09:15 Place: Lilla aulan, Jan Waldenströms gata 5, Skånes Universitetssjukhus i Malmö External reviewer(s) Name: Öhman, Lena Title: Professor Affiliation: Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborg

Related research output

View all (2)