Association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and cognitive performance in middle-aged and older European men

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title = "Association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and cognitive performance in middle-aged and older European men",
abstract = "Background: Although there is evidence that vitamin D inadequacy may be linked to adverse cognitive outcomes, results from studies on this topic have been inconsistent. The aim of this trial was to examine the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels and cognitive performance in middle-aged and older European men. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included 3,369 men aged 40-79 years from eight centres enrolled in the European Male Ageing Study. Cognitive function was assessed using the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test, the Camden Topographical Recognition Memory (CTRM) test and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Serum 25(OH) D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Additional assessments included measurement of physical activity, functional performance and mood/depression. Associations between cognitive function and 25(OH) D levels were explored using locally weighted and linear regression models. Results: In total, 3,133 men (mean (+/- SD) age 60 +/- 11 years) were included in the analysis. The mean (+/- SD) 25(OH) D concentration was 63 +/- 31 nmol/l. In age-adjusted linear regressions, high levels of 25(OH) D were associated with high scores on the copy component of the ROCF test (beta per 10 nmol/l = 0.096; 95{\%} CI 0.049 to 0.144), the CTRM test (beta per 10 nmol/l= 0.075; 95{\%} CI 0.026 to 0.124) and the DSST (beta per 10 nmol/l = 0.318; 95{\%} CI 0.235 to 0.401). After adjusting for additional confounders, 25(OH) D levels were associated with only score on the DSST (beta per 10 nmol/l = 0.152; 95{\%} CI 0.051 to 0.253). Locally weighted and spline regressions suggested the relationship between 25(OH) D concentration and cognitive function was most pronounced at 25(OH) D concentrations below 35 nmol/l. Conclusion: In this study, lower 25(OH) D levels were associated with poorer performance on the DSST. Further research is warranted to determine whether vitamin D sufficiency might have a role in preserving cognitive function in older adults.",
author = "Lee, {David M.} and Abdelouahid Tajar and Aslan Ulubaev and Neil Pendleton and O'Neill, {Terence W.} and O'Connor, {Daryl B.} and Gyorgy Bartfai and Steven Boonen and Roger Bouillon and Casanueva, {Felipe F.} and Finn, {Joseph D.} and Gianni Forti and Aleksander Giwercman and Han, {Thang S.} and Huhtaniemi, {Ilpo T.} and Krzysztof Kula and Lean, {Michael E. J.} and Margus Punab and Silman, {Alan J.} and Dirk Vanderschueren and Wu, {Frederick C. W.}",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1136/jnnp.2008.165720",
language = "English",
volume = "80",
pages = "722--729",
journal = "Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry",
issn = "1468-330X",
publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",
number = "7",