Associations between being 'locked-in' and health - an epidemiological study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between an individual's level of perceived control over labor market position (locked-in and not locked-in) and self-rated health and psychological well-being. Methods. A representative sample (n = 11,675) of the working population in southern Sweden responded to a questionnaire. Results. Sixty-seven percent of the respondents worked in their preferred workplace and occupation. Nineteen percent reported being in a nonpreferred workplace and nonpreferred occupation (double locked-in). Twenty-three percent reported suboptimal health compared with 31% among the double locked-in. The risk of suboptimal health was elevated in all locked-in groups also after adjustment for background variables and job strain. In the double locked-in group, the fully adjusted odds ratio for suboptimal health was 1.72 (95% confidence interval 1.49-1.99) and for suboptimal psychological well-being 2.17 (95% confidence interval 1.84-2.56). Odds ratio for the other locked-in groups was lower but still statistically significant. Conclusions. Being at a nonpreferred work-place or occupation was associated with impaired health.


External organisations
  • Stockholm University
  • Karolinska Institutet
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology


  • Control-over, Exit, GHQ-12, Labor market, Locked-in, Logistic regression, Self-rated health, Work environment
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-85
Number of pages15
JournalNordic Journal of Working Life Studies
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Publication categoryResearch