Astrometric radial velocities. III. Hipparcos measurements of nearby star clusters and associations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Radial motions of stars in nearby moving clusters are determined fromaccurate proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes, without any use ofspectroscopy. Assuming that cluster members share the same velocityvector (apart from a random dispersion), we apply a maximum-likelihoodmethod on astrometric data from Hipparcos to compute radial and spacevelocities (and their dispersions) in the Ursa Major, Hyades, ComaBerenices, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters, and for theScorpius-Centaurus, alpha Persei, and ``HIP 98321'' associations. Theradial motion of the Hyades cluster is determined to within 0.4 kms<SUP>-1</SUP> (standard error), and that of its individual stars towithin 0.6 km s<SUP>-1</SUP>. For other clusters, Hipparcos data yieldastrometric radial velocities with typical accuracies of a few kms<SUP>-1</SUP>. A comparison of these astrometric values withspectroscopic radial velocities in the literature shows a good generalagreement and, in the case of the best-determined Hyades cluster, alsopermits searches for subtle astrophysical differences, such as evidencefor enhanced convective blueshifts of F-dwarf spectra, and decreasedgravitational redshifts in giants. Similar comparisons for the ScorpiusOB2 complex indicate some expansion of its associations, albeit slowerthan expected from their ages. As a by-product from the radial-velocitysolutions, kinematically improved parallaxes for individual stars areobtained, enabling Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams with unprecedentedaccuracy in luminosity. For the Hyades (parallax accuracy 0.3 mas), itsmain sequence resembles a thin line, possibly with wiggles in it.Although this main sequence has underpopulated regions at certaincolours (previously suggested to be ``Böhm-Vitense gaps''), suchare not visible for other clusters, and are probably spurious. Futurespace astrometry missions carry a great potential for absoluteradial-velocity determinations, insensitive to the complexities ofstellar spectra. Based on observations by the ESA Hipparcos satellite.Extended versions of Tables
ef{tab1} and
ef{tab2} are available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.125.8) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/446

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Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology

Keywords

  • METHODS: DATA ANALYSIS, TECHNIQUES: RADIAL VELOCITIES, ASTROMETRY, OPEN CLUSTERS AND ASSOCIATIONS: GENERAL, STARS: DISTANCES - STARS: KINEMATICS
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)446-463
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Volume381
Publication statusPublished - 2002
Publication categoryResearch
Peer-reviewedYes

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Madsen, S., 2002, Lund Observatory, Lund University. 116 p.

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