Background factors influencing somatic and psychological symptoms in middle-age women with different hormonal status A population-based study of Swedish women.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objective: To analyse the influence of socio-demographic characteristics and environmental factors on self-reported somatic and psychological symptoms among middle-aged Swedish women. Methods: A total of 6917 women living in the Lund area of southern Sweden were participates of this study. They completed a generic questionnaire pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and current health related problems. According to hormonal status, the participants were subdivided into three groups, i.e. premenopause, postmenopause and perior postmenopausal women with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Results: By using multiple logistic regression models, a high risk for somatic symptoms was independently associated with unemployment, no exercise, unmarried, high body weight and diseases affecting the cardiovascular system as well as a history of cancer. Psychological symptoms were independently associated with higher educational level, unemployment, no exercise, unmarried, heavy smoking habits (>= 15 cig/day), weight gain and a history of cancer. In addition, the background factors seemed to have less impact on symptoms among women who used HRT. Conclusion: Socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and concurrent health problems appear to have influences on the frequency and the number of somatic and psychological symptoms in middle-age women. Hormone replacement therapy seems to be able to counteract negative impacts caused by un-healthy lifestyle and other health problems.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine


  • lifestyle factors, socio-demographic factors, HRT, midlife women, psychosomatic symptoms
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)306-318
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 2005
Publication categoryResearch

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