Bats coordinate sonar and flight behavior as they forage in open and cluttered environments.

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Bats coordinate sonar and flight behavior as they forage in open and cluttered environments. / Falk, Benjamin; Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F.

In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 217, No. 24, 2014, p. 4356-4364.

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Falk, Benjamin ; Jakobsen, Lasse ; Surlykke, Annemarie ; Moss, Cynthia F. / Bats coordinate sonar and flight behavior as they forage in open and cluttered environments. In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 2014 ; Vol. 217, No. 24. pp. 4356-4364.

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Bats coordinate sonar and flight behavior as they forage in open and cluttered environments.

AU - Falk, Benjamin

AU - Jakobsen, Lasse

AU - Surlykke, Annemarie

AU - Moss, Cynthia F

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Echolocating bats employ active sensing as they emit sounds and listen to the returning echoes to probe their environment for navigation, obstacle avoidance, and pursuit of prey. The sensing behavior of bats includes the planning of 3D spatial trajectory paths, which are guided by echo information. In this study, we examined the relationship between active sonar sampling and flight motor output as bats changed environments from open space to an artificial forest in a laboratory flight room. Using high-speed video and audio recordings, we reconstructed and analyzed 3D flight trajectories, sonar beam aim and acoustic sonar emission patterns as the bats captured prey. We found that big brown bats adjusted their sonar call structure, temporal patterning, and flight speed in response to environmental change. The sonar beam aim of the bats predicted the flight turn rate in both the open room and the forest. However, the relationship between sonar beam aim and turn rate changed in the forest during the final stage of prey pursuit, during which the bat made shallower turns. We found flight stereotypy developed over multiple days in the forest, but did not find evidence for a reduction in active sonar sampling with experience. The temporal patterning of sonar sound groups was related to path planning around obstacles in the forest. Together, these results contribute to our understanding of how bats coordinate echolocation and flight behavior to represent and navigate their environment.

AB - Echolocating bats employ active sensing as they emit sounds and listen to the returning echoes to probe their environment for navigation, obstacle avoidance, and pursuit of prey. The sensing behavior of bats includes the planning of 3D spatial trajectory paths, which are guided by echo information. In this study, we examined the relationship between active sonar sampling and flight motor output as bats changed environments from open space to an artificial forest in a laboratory flight room. Using high-speed video and audio recordings, we reconstructed and analyzed 3D flight trajectories, sonar beam aim and acoustic sonar emission patterns as the bats captured prey. We found that big brown bats adjusted their sonar call structure, temporal patterning, and flight speed in response to environmental change. The sonar beam aim of the bats predicted the flight turn rate in both the open room and the forest. However, the relationship between sonar beam aim and turn rate changed in the forest during the final stage of prey pursuit, during which the bat made shallower turns. We found flight stereotypy developed over multiple days in the forest, but did not find evidence for a reduction in active sonar sampling with experience. The temporal patterning of sonar sound groups was related to path planning around obstacles in the forest. Together, these results contribute to our understanding of how bats coordinate echolocation and flight behavior to represent and navigate their environment.

U2 - 10.1242/jeb.114132

DO - 10.1242/jeb.114132

M3 - Article

C2 - 25394632

VL - 217

SP - 4356

EP - 4364

JO - Journal of Experimental Biology

JF - Journal of Experimental Biology

SN - 1477-9145

IS - 24

ER -