Beyond MassiveMIMO: The Potential of DataTransmission with Large Intelligent Surfaces
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Abstract
In this paper, we consider the potential of datatransmission in a system with a massive number of radiating and sensing elements, thought of as a contiguous surface of electromagnetically active material. We refer to this as a Large Intelligent Surface (LIS). The "LIS" is a newly proposed concept, which conceptually goes beyond contemporary massive MIMO technology, and arises from our vision of a future where manmade structures are electronically active with integrated electronics and wireless communication making the entire environment "intelligent". Firstly, we consider capacities of singleantenna autonomous terminals communicating to the LIS where the entire surface is used as a receiving antennaarray in a perfect lineofsight (LOS) propagation environment. Under the condition that the surfacearea is sufficiently large, the received signal after a matchedfiltering (MF) operation can be closely approximated by a sincfunctionlike intersymbol interference (ISI) channel. Secondly, we analyze a normalized capacity measured per unitsurface, for a fixed transmit power per volumeunit with different terminaldeployments. As terminaldensity increases, the limit of the normalized capacity [nats/s/Hz/volumeunit] achieved when wavelength <formula><tex>$\lambda$</tex></formula> approaches zero is equal to half of the transmit power per volumeunit divided by noise spatial power spectral density (PSD). Thirdly, we show that the number of independent signal dimensions that can be harvested per meter deployed surface is <formula><tex>$2/\lambda$</tex></formula> for onedimensional terminaldeployment, and <formula><tex>$\pi/\lambda^{2}$</tex></formula> per square meter for two and three dimensional terminaldeployments. Lastly, we consider implementations of the LIS in the form of a grid of conventional antennaelements, and show that the sampling lattice that minimizes the surfacearea and simultaneously obtains one independent signal dimension for every spent antenna is the hexagonal lattice.
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Original language  English 

Pages (fromto)  27462758 
Journal  IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 
Volume  66 
Issue number  10 
Early online date  2018 Mar 16 
Publication status  Published  2018 May 15 
Publication category  Research 
Peerreviewed  Yes 