Bidirectional Microglia–Neuron Communication in Health and Disease
Research output: Contribution to journal › Review article
Microglia are ramified cells that exhibit highly motile processes, which continuously survey the brain parenchyma and react to any insult to the CNS homeostasis. Although microglia have long been recognized as a crucial player in generating and maintaining inflammatory responses in the CNS, now it has become clear, that their function are much more diverse, particularly in the healthy brain. The innate immune response and phagocytosis represent only a little segment of microglia functional repertoire that also includes maintenance of biochemical homeostasis, neuronal circuit maturation during development and experience-dependent remodeling of neuronal circuits in the adult brain. Being equipped by numerous receptors and cell surface molecules microglia can perform bidirectional interactions with other cell types in the CNS. There is accumulating evidence showing that neurons inform microglia about their status and thus are capable of controlling microglial activation and motility while microglia also modulate neuronal activities. This review addresses the topic: how microglia communicate with other cell types in the brain, including fractalkine signaling, secreted soluble factors and extracellular vesicles. We summarize the current state of knowledge of physiological role and function of microglia during brain development and in the mature brain and further highlight microglial contribution to brain pathologies such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, brain tumor as well as neuropsychiatric diseases (depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia).
|Research areas and keywords||
Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY
|Journal||Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience|
|Publication status||Published - 2018 Sep 27|