Bile stimulates Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Congo Red Binding and Biofilm Formation of Lactobacillus strains.

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Seventeen Lactobacillus strains were tested for cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) using the salt aggregation test (SAT) and Congo red binding (CRB) assay. CRB was pH and ionic strength dependent and protease sensitive and in the presence of 100 μg/ml cholesterol, the CRB was significantly reduced. Autoaggregating (AA) L. crispatus strains showed 50% more CRB than the reference strain, the curli-producing E.coli MC4100. CRB of L. crispatus 12005, L. paracasei F8, L. plantarum F44 and L. paracasei F19 was enhanced when grown in MRS broth with 0.5% taurocholic acid (TA) or 5% porcine bile (PB) (P<0.05). CSH was also enhanced for the non-AA strains, L. plantarum F44, L. paracasei F19 and L. rhamnosus GG when grown in MRS broth with 0.5% TA, 5% PB or 0.25% mucin with enhanced biofilm formation in MRS broth with bile (P<0.05). Two AA strains, L. crispatus 12005 and L. paracasei F8, developed biofilm independent of bile or mucin. In summary, under bile stressed growth conditions, early (24 h cultures) biofilm formation is associated with an increase in hydrophobic cell surface proteins and high CRB. Late mature (72 h culture) biofilm contained more carbohydrates as shown by crystal violet staining. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.All rights reserved.


  • Padma Ambalam
  • Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi
  • Ingrid Nilsson
  • Torkel Wadström
  • Åsa Ljungh
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Microbiology in the medical area
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-19
JournalFEMS Microbiology Letters
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Publication categoryResearch