Biological variation of retinoids in man.

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title = "Biological variation of retinoids in man.",
abstract = "This investigation was undertaken to assess biological variation, especially the within-subject variations of all- trans retinoic acid, 13- cis retinoic acid and retinol in human serum. Diurnal variation and variation over a week, a month and a year were studied in 11 males (aged 21 - 54 years) and 17 females (aged 22 - 63 years), all subjectively healthy. We found no diurnal variation with the exception of all- trans retinoic acid, which had maximal concentrations at noon irrespective of food intake. Seasonal variations were marginal. Both all- trans and 13- cis retinoic acids had fairly high within-subject (13.1{\%} and 12.6{\%}, respectively) and between-subject coefficients of variation (15.9{\%} and 21.0{\%}, respectively), while the within-subject CV of retinol was less (5.6{\%}, with a between-subject CV of 21.1{\%}). Thus, the indices of individuality were <1 for all retinoids. The critical differences between two consecutive samples were <40{\%} for the retinoic acids and <20{\%} for retinol. Women had higher all- trans retinoic acid concentrations in serum (5.1 nmol/L vs. 4.5 nmol/L), lower 13- cis retinoic acid concentrations (4.5 nmol/L vs. 5.5 nmol/L) and lower retinol concentrations in serum (2.1 µmol/L vs. 2.5 µmol/L) than men. Thus, samples for retinoid determinations should be drawn in the morning and evaluated using separate gender reference intervals.",
author = "{Berggren S{\"o}derlund}, Maria and Andreas Holm{\'e}r and G Sv{\"a}rd and G Fex and Peter Nilsson-Ehle",
year = "2002",
doi = "10.1080/003655102321004521",
language = "English",
volume = "62",
pages = "511--519",
journal = "Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation",
issn = "1502-7686",
publisher = "Informa Healthcare",
number = "7",