Biomarkers of early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers and former smokers. Protocol of a longitudinal study.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an irreversible disease, diagnosed predominantly in smokers. COPD is currently the third leading cause of death worldwide. Far more than 15 % of smokers get COPD: in fact, most develop some amount of pulmonary impairment. Smoking-related COPD is associated with both acute exacerbations and is closely correlated to comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease and lung cancer. The objective of our study (KOL-Örestad) is to identify biomarkers in smokers and ex-smokers, with early signs of COPD, and compare these biomarkers with those of non-smokers and healthy smokers/ex-smokers. The participants in the study are recruited from Örestadskliniken, a primary health care clinic in Malmö, Sweden.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
  • Biomaterials Science
Original languageEnglish
Article number9
JournalClinical and Translational Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Publication categoryResearch