Bladder cancer, a two phased disease?

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


The processes of intraepithelial migration, intraluminal seeding, and field cancerization as models for initiation, spread, and recurrences of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) are reviewed in light of recent molecular investigations. The accumulated molecular data on synchronous and metachronous tumors indicate that the majority of recurrent and multiple tumors are monoclonal. Molecular data has also shown the presence of chromosomal and genetic changes in precursor lesions as well as in normal urothelial cells. Genetic-histological mapping of cystectomized bladders has shown that overt tumors occur as local events in areas of genetically altered urothelium. A model is put forward in which the tumor process is initiated by genetically altered but histologically normal cells that produce fields of altered cells by intraepithelial displacement. By the accumulation of further genetic changes the fields of altered urothelium reaches a state of criticality, which locally may produce frank tumors.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Cancer and Oncology
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)225-232
JournalSeminars in Cancer Biology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Publication categoryResearch

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