Breaking the chains: Hot super-Earth systems from migration and disruption of compact resonant chains

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Breaking the chains : Hot super-Earth systems from migration and disruption of compact resonant chains. / Izidoro, Andre; Ogihara, Masahiro; Raymond, Sean N.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Pierens, Arnaud; Bitsch, Bertram; Cossou, Christophe; Hersant, Franck.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 470, No. 2, stx1232, 11.09.2017, p. 1750-1770.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Izidoro, A, Ogihara, M, Raymond, SN, Morbidelli, A, Pierens, A, Bitsch, B, Cossou, C & Hersant, F 2017, 'Breaking the chains: Hot super-Earth systems from migration and disruption of compact resonant chains', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 470, no. 2, stx1232, pp. 1750-1770. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx1232

APA

Izidoro, A., Ogihara, M., Raymond, S. N., Morbidelli, A., Pierens, A., Bitsch, B., ... Hersant, F. (2017). Breaking the chains: Hot super-Earth systems from migration and disruption of compact resonant chains. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 470(2), 1750-1770. [stx1232]. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx1232

CBE

MLA

Vancouver

Author

Izidoro, Andre ; Ogihara, Masahiro ; Raymond, Sean N. ; Morbidelli, Alessandro ; Pierens, Arnaud ; Bitsch, Bertram ; Cossou, Christophe ; Hersant, Franck. / Breaking the chains : Hot super-Earth systems from migration and disruption of compact resonant chains. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2017 ; Vol. 470, No. 2. pp. 1750-1770.

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Breaking the chains

T2 - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

AU - Izidoro, Andre

AU - Ogihara, Masahiro

AU - Raymond, Sean N.

AU - Morbidelli, Alessandro

AU - Pierens, Arnaud

AU - Bitsch, Bertram

AU - Cossou, Christophe

AU - Hersant, Franck

PY - 2017/9/11

Y1 - 2017/9/11

N2 - 'Hot super-Earths' (or 'mini-Neptunes') between one and four times Earth's size with period shorter than 100 d orbit 30-50 per cent of Sun-like stars. Their orbital configuration - measured as the period ratio distribution of adjacent planets in multiplanet systems - is a strong constraint for formation models. Here, we use N-body simulations with synthetic forces from an underlying evolving gaseous disc to model the formation and long-term dynamical evolution of super-Earth systems. While the gas disc is present, planetary embryos grow and migrate inward to form a resonant chain anchored at the inner edge of the disc. These resonant chains are far more compact than the observed super-Earth systems. Once the gas dissipates, resonant chains may become dynamically unstable. They undergo a phase of giant impacts that spreads the systems out. Disc turbulence has no measurable effect on the outcome. Our simulations match observations if a small fraction of resonant chains remain stable, while most super- Earths undergo a late dynamical instability. Our statistical analysis restricts the contribution of stable systems to less than 25 per cent. Our results also suggest that the large fraction of observed single-planet systems does not necessarily imply any dichotomy in the architecture of planetary systems. Finally, we use the low abundance of resonances in Kepler data to argue that, in reality, the survival of resonant chains happens likely only in ~5 per cent of the cases. This leads to a mystery: in our simulations only 50-60 per cent of resonant chains became unstable, whereas at least 75 per cent (and probably 90-95 per cent) must be unstable to match observations.

AB - 'Hot super-Earths' (or 'mini-Neptunes') between one and four times Earth's size with period shorter than 100 d orbit 30-50 per cent of Sun-like stars. Their orbital configuration - measured as the period ratio distribution of adjacent planets in multiplanet systems - is a strong constraint for formation models. Here, we use N-body simulations with synthetic forces from an underlying evolving gaseous disc to model the formation and long-term dynamical evolution of super-Earth systems. While the gas disc is present, planetary embryos grow and migrate inward to form a resonant chain anchored at the inner edge of the disc. These resonant chains are far more compact than the observed super-Earth systems. Once the gas dissipates, resonant chains may become dynamically unstable. They undergo a phase of giant impacts that spreads the systems out. Disc turbulence has no measurable effect on the outcome. Our simulations match observations if a small fraction of resonant chains remain stable, while most super- Earths undergo a late dynamical instability. Our statistical analysis restricts the contribution of stable systems to less than 25 per cent. Our results also suggest that the large fraction of observed single-planet systems does not necessarily imply any dichotomy in the architecture of planetary systems. Finally, we use the low abundance of resonances in Kepler data to argue that, in reality, the survival of resonant chains happens likely only in ~5 per cent of the cases. This leads to a mystery: in our simulations only 50-60 per cent of resonant chains became unstable, whereas at least 75 per cent (and probably 90-95 per cent) must be unstable to match observations.

KW - Disc interactions

KW - Methods: Numerical

KW - Planet

KW - Planets and satellites: Dynamical evolution and stability

KW - Planets and satellites: Formation

KW - Protoplanetary discs

U2 - 10.1093/mnras/stx1232

DO - 10.1093/mnras/stx1232

M3 - Article

VL - 470

SP - 1750

EP - 1770

JO - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

JF - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

SN - 1365-2966

IS - 2

M1 - stx1232

ER -