Carbon footprints of 13 000 cities

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter


While it is understood that cities generate the majority of carbon emissions, for most cities, towns, and rural areas around the world no carbon footprint (CF) has been estimated. The Gridded Global Model of City Footprints (GGMCF) presented here downscales national CFs into a 250 m gridded model using data on population, purchasing power, and existing subnational CF studies from the US, China, EU, and Japan. Studies have shown that CFs are highly concentrated by income, with the top decile of earners driving 30%-45% of emissions. Even allowing for significant modeling uncertainties, we find that emissions are similarly concentrated in a small number of cities. The highest emitting 100 urban areas (defined as contiguous population clusters) account for 18% of the global carbon footprint. While many of the cities with the highest footprints are in countries with high carbon footprints, nearly one quarter of the top cities (41 of the top 200) are in countries with relatively low emissions. In these cities population and affluence combine to drive footprints at a scale similar to those of cities in high-income countries. We conclude that concerted action by a limited number of local governments can have a disproportionate impact on global emissions.


  • Daniel Moran
  • Keiichiro Kanemoto
  • Magnus Jiborn
  • Richard Wood
  • Johannes Többen
  • Karen C. Seto
External organisations
  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • Shinshu University
  • Yale University
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Environmental Sciences


  • cities, footprint, MRIO, scope 3
Original languageEnglish
Article number064041
JournalEnvironmental Research Letters
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jun 1
Publication categoryResearch