Cascading and radiator flow optimization in district heating substations and advanced customer accounting - In pursuit of improved cooling

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingPaper in conference proceeding


Ibis paper deals with various methods of improved cooling of primary water in district heating (DH) substations and evaluates the benefit of an improved cooling from the perspective of the construction of an appropriate customer accounting method. The general benefit of an improved cooling is well-known: Less thermal stresses in pipelines, lowered heat and pumping losses and increased capacity in the network, improved efficiency of combined heat and power plants and other types of generating plants using heat pumps, waste heat and flue gas condensation. To stimulate improved cooling in customer owned DH substations, some Swedish DH companies apply a method of customer accounting based not only on heat energy consumption but also on primary water usage and mean water cooling. This benefits customers with thermodynamically well-functioning substations, i.e. a proper cooling, at the expense of customers with less well-functioning substations. The extension of 'flow accounting' has been mapped and found to be applied for a majority of the delivered heat. It represents an important incentive for proper cooling in substations. The study has found that the size of the flow accounting generally very well reflects the benefits for the DH company from an improved cooling. The amount of cooling of DH primary water achieved in DH substations depends on the employed connecting scheme. In a recent study, we demonstrated that adopting three-stage cascading could achieve significant improvements in this respect. The economical aspects on this subject are here further mapped out based on the results from the study of flow accounting. Optimized and properly functioning substation and secondary systems are, from an economical perspective, of at least equal interest as the choice of connection scheme. Especially if there is an existing oversizing of the radiators, considerably larger savings can be made if optimized control of the radiator circuit is employed.


  • Patrick Lauenburg
  • Janusz Wollerstrand
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Energy Engineering


  • customer accounting, cascading, district heating, substations, circuit, radiator
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of Ecos 2005, Vols 1-3 - Shaping our future energy systems
PublisherNorwegian University of Science and Technology
ISBN (Print)82-519-2041-8
Publication statusPublished - 2005
Publication categoryResearch
Event18th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS 2005) - Trondheim, Norway
Duration: 2005 Jun 202005 Jun 22


Conference18th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS 2005)