CDK10 Mutations in Humans and Mice Cause Severe Growth Retardation, Spine Malformations, and Developmental Delays

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In five separate families, we identified nine individuals affected by a previously unidentified syndrome characterized by growth retardation, spine malformation, facial dysmorphisms, and developmental delays. Using homozygosity mapping, array CGH, and exome sequencing, we uncovered bi-allelic loss-of-function CDK10 mutations segregating with this disease. CDK10 is a protein kinase that partners with cyclin M to phosphorylate substrates such as ETS2 and PKN2 in order to modulate cellular growth. To validate and model the pathogenicity of these CDK10 germline mutations, we generated conditional-knockout mice. Homozygous Cdk10-knockout mice died postnatally with severe growth retardation, skeletal defects, and kidney and lung abnormalities, symptoms that partly resemble the disease's effect in humans. Fibroblasts derived from affected individuals and Cdk10-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) proliferated normally; however, Cdk10-knockout MEFs developed longer cilia. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of mutant and wild-type mouse organs revealed lipid metabolic changes consistent with growth impairment and altered ciliogenesis in the absence of CDK10. Our results document the CDK10 loss-of-function phenotype and point to a function for CDK10 in transducing signals received at the primary cilia to sustain embryonic and postnatal development.


  • Christian Windpassinger
  • Juliette Piard
  • Carine Bonnard
  • Majid Alfadhel
  • Shuhui Lim
  • Xavier Bisteau
  • Stéphane Blouin
  • Nur'Ain B. Ali
  • Alvin Yu Jin Ng
  • Hao Lu
  • Sumanty Tohari
  • S. Zakiah A. Talib
  • Noémi van Hul
  • Matias J. Caldez
  • Lionel Van Maldergem
  • Gökhan Yigit
  • Hülya Kayserili
  • Sameh A. Youssef
  • Vincenzo Coppola
  • Alain de Bruin
  • Lino Tessarollo
  • Hyungwon Choi
  • Verena Rupp
  • Katharina Roetzer
  • Paul Roschger
  • Klaus Klaushofer
  • Janine Altmüller
  • Sudipto Roy
  • Byrappa Venkatesh
  • Rudolf Ganger
  • Franz Grill
  • Farid Ben Chehida
  • Bernd Wollnik
  • Umut Altunoglu
  • Ali Al Kaissi
  • Bruno Reversade
External organisations
  • Medical University of Graz
  • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Besancon
  • University of Franche-Comté
  • A*STAR Institute of Medical Biology (IMB)
  • King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences
  • Merck Research Laboratories
  • Hanusch Hospital
  • National University of Singapore
  • University Medical Center Göttingen
  • Koc University
  • Utrecht University
  • National Cancer Institute at Frederick
  • Ohio State University
  • National University Health System
  • Sigmund Freud Private University
  • Orthopedic Hospital of Speising
  • Ibn Zohr Institute
  • Istanbul University
  • Amsterdam UMC - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
  • A*Star Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB)
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Basic Medicine


  • Al Kaissi syndrome knockout mice, CDK10, cilia, congenital disorder, ETS2, growth retardation, metabolism, spine malformation
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)391-403
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Journal of Human Genetics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Sep 7
Publication categoryResearch
Externally publishedYes