Characterizing motor and non-motor aspects of early-morning off periods in Parkinson's disease: An international multicenter study.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The characteristic off periods that develop over time in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) on chronic levodopa therapy are usually considered to be motor complications but more recently the important contribution of non-motor off and non-motor fluctuations has also been acknowledged. Early-morning off (EMO) periods in PD patients are known to be a cause of significant disability, in addition to having a negative impact on quality of life. Yet EMOs are poorly defined, particularly in relation to non-motor symptoms (NMS).


  • A Rizos
  • P Martinez-Martin
  • Per Odin
  • A Antonini
  • B Kessel
  • T Klemencic Kozul
  • A Todorova
  • A Douiri
  • A Martin
  • F Stocchi
  • E Dietrichs
  • K Ray Chaudhuri
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Neurology
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1231-1235
JournalParkinsonism & Related Disorders
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Publication categoryResearch