Common traffic routes for imported spermine and endosomal glypican-1-derived heparan sulfate in fibroblasts

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Abstract

Import of the polyamine spermine from the extracellular environment depends on the presence of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as glypican-1. This proteoglycan is internalized by endocytosis, releases its heparan sulfate chains in endosomes by a nitric oxide-, copper- and amyloid precursor protein-dependent mechanism, then penetrates the membrane and is transported to the nucleus and then to autophagosomes. This process is spontaneous or induced by ascorbate depending on the growth-state of the cell. Here, we have explored possible connections between the heparan sulfate traffic route and spermine uptake and delivery in wild-type and Tg2576 mouse fibroblasts. Cells were examined by deconvolution immunofluorescence microscopy. The antibodies used were specific for spermine, glypican-1-derived heparan sulfate, Rab7, nucleolin and a marker for autophagosomes. Endogenous immunostainable spermine was primarily associated with autophagosomes. When spermine synthesis was inhibited, imported spermine appeared in Rab7-positive endosomes. When ascorbate was added, heparan sulfate and spermine were transported to the nucleus where they colocalized with nucleolin. Spermine also appeared in autophagosomes. In a pulse-chase experiment, heparan sulfate and spermine were first arrested in late endosomes by actinomycin D treatment. During the chase, when arrest was abolished, heparan sulfate and spermine were both transported to the nucleus and targeted nucleolin. In amyloid precursor protein-/--fibroblasts, ascorbate failed to induce release of heparan sulfate and spermine remained in the endosomes. We propose that cell surface glypican-1 carries spermine to the endosomes and that the released heparan sulfate carries spermine across the membrane into the cytosol and then to the nucleus.

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Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Cell and Molecular Biology

Keywords

  • Amyloid precursor protein, Ascorbate, Autophagosomes, Glypican-1, Heparan sulfate, Nitric oxide, Nucleolin, Spermine
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-142
JournalExperimental Cell Research
Volume364
Issue number2
Early online date2018 Feb 8
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Publication categoryResearch
Peer-reviewedYes