Concurrent formation of supermassive stars and globular clusters: Implications for early self-enrichment

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Concurrent formation of supermassive stars and globular clusters : Implications for early self-enrichment. / Gieles, Mark; Charbonnel, Corinne; Krause, Martin G.H.; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent; Agertz, Oscar; Lamers, Henny J.G.L.M.; Bastian, Nathan; Gualandris, Alessia; Zocchi, Alice; Petts, James A.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 478, No. 2, 01.08.2018, p. 2461-2479.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Gieles, M, Charbonnel, C, Krause, MGH, Hénault-Brunet, V, Agertz, O, Lamers, HJGLM, Bastian, N, Gualandris, A, Zocchi, A & Petts, JA 2018, 'Concurrent formation of supermassive stars and globular clusters: Implications for early self-enrichment', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 478, no. 2, pp. 2461-2479. https://doi.org/10.1093/MNRAS/STY1059

APA

Gieles, M., Charbonnel, C., Krause, M. G. H., Hénault-Brunet, V., Agertz, O., Lamers, H. J. G. L. M., ... Petts, J. A. (2018). Concurrent formation of supermassive stars and globular clusters: Implications for early self-enrichment. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 478(2), 2461-2479. https://doi.org/10.1093/MNRAS/STY1059

CBE

Gieles M, Charbonnel C, Krause MGH, Hénault-Brunet V, Agertz O, Lamers HJGLM, Bastian N, Gualandris A, Zocchi A, Petts JA. 2018. Concurrent formation of supermassive stars and globular clusters: Implications for early self-enrichment. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 478(2):2461-2479. https://doi.org/10.1093/MNRAS/STY1059

MLA

Vancouver

Author

Gieles, Mark ; Charbonnel, Corinne ; Krause, Martin G.H. ; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent ; Agertz, Oscar ; Lamers, Henny J.G.L.M. ; Bastian, Nathan ; Gualandris, Alessia ; Zocchi, Alice ; Petts, James A. / Concurrent formation of supermassive stars and globular clusters : Implications for early self-enrichment. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2018 ; Vol. 478, No. 2. pp. 2461-2479.

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Concurrent formation of supermassive stars and globular clusters

T2 - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

AU - Gieles, Mark

AU - Charbonnel, Corinne

AU - Krause, Martin G.H.

AU - Hénault-Brunet, Vincent

AU - Agertz, Oscar

AU - Lamers, Henny J.G.L.M.

AU - Bastian, Nathan

AU - Gualandris, Alessia

AU - Zocchi, Alice

AU - Petts, James A.

PY - 2018/8/1

Y1 - 2018/8/1

N2 - We present a model for the concurrent formation of globular clusters (GCs) and supermassive stars (SMSs, ≳103M⊙) to address the origin of the HeCNONaMgAl abundance anomalies in GCs. GCs form in converging gas flows and accumulate low-angular momentum gas, which accretes on to protostars. This leads to an adiabatic contraction of the cluster and an increase of the stellar collision rate. A SMS can form via runaway collisions if the cluster reaches sufficiently high density before two-body relaxation halts the contraction. This condition is met if the number of stars ≳106 and the gas accretion rate ≳105M⊙ Myr-1, reminiscent of GC formation in high gas-density environments, such as - but not restricted to - the early Universe. The strong SMS wind mixes with the inflowing pristine gas, such that the protostars accrete diluted hot-hydrogen burning yields of the SMS. Because of continuous rejuvenation, the amount of processed material liberated by the SMS can be an order of magnitude higher than its maximum mass. This 'conveyor-belt' production of hot-hydrogen burning products provides a solution to the mass budget problem that plagues other scenarios. Additionally, the liberated material is mildly enriched in helium and relatively rich in other hot-hydrogen burning products, in agreement with abundances of GCs today. Finally, we find a super-linear scaling between the amount of processed material and cluster mass, providing an explanation for the observed increase of the fraction of processed material with GC mass. We discuss open questions of this new GC enrichment scenario and propose observational tests.

AB - We present a model for the concurrent formation of globular clusters (GCs) and supermassive stars (SMSs, ≳103M⊙) to address the origin of the HeCNONaMgAl abundance anomalies in GCs. GCs form in converging gas flows and accumulate low-angular momentum gas, which accretes on to protostars. This leads to an adiabatic contraction of the cluster and an increase of the stellar collision rate. A SMS can form via runaway collisions if the cluster reaches sufficiently high density before two-body relaxation halts the contraction. This condition is met if the number of stars ≳106 and the gas accretion rate ≳105M⊙ Myr-1, reminiscent of GC formation in high gas-density environments, such as - but not restricted to - the early Universe. The strong SMS wind mixes with the inflowing pristine gas, such that the protostars accrete diluted hot-hydrogen burning yields of the SMS. Because of continuous rejuvenation, the amount of processed material liberated by the SMS can be an order of magnitude higher than its maximum mass. This 'conveyor-belt' production of hot-hydrogen burning products provides a solution to the mass budget problem that plagues other scenarios. Additionally, the liberated material is mildly enriched in helium and relatively rich in other hot-hydrogen burning products, in agreement with abundances of GCs today. Finally, we find a super-linear scaling between the amount of processed material and cluster mass, providing an explanation for the observed increase of the fraction of processed material with GC mass. We discuss open questions of this new GC enrichment scenario and propose observational tests.

KW - Galaxies: star clusters: general

KW - Globular clusters: general

KW - Stars: abundances

KW - Stars: black holes

KW - Stars: kinematics and dynamics

KW - Supergiants

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85051524550&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/MNRAS/STY1059

DO - 10.1093/MNRAS/STY1059

M3 - Article

VL - 478

SP - 2461

EP - 2479

JO - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

JF - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

SN - 1365-2966

IS - 2

ER -