Consumption versus Technology: Drivers of Global Carbon Emissions 2000–2014

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This study utilizes recently published environmental extensions to the World Input–Output Database (WIOD) to compare production-based, consumption-based and technology-adjusted carbon emissions for 44 countries and country groups for the period 2000 to 2014. Results show some significant shifts in global emission trends compared to similar studies of the period before 2009. For 20 European Union (EU) countries and the US, emissions decreased over the period regardless of measure, and the same was true for the EU. Since GDP grew in 18 of these countries, the results provide unambiguous evidence for absolute, albeit modest, decoupling of economic growth from carbon emissions. The large increase in global emissions that nevertheless occurred during the period was driven almost entirely by increasing consumption in China and developing countries.


External organisations
  • ETH Zürich
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Economic History
  • Climate Research


  • trade, carbon emissions, decoupling, China, EU, US, outsourcing
Original languageEnglish
Article number339
Number of pages12
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan 10
Publication categoryResearch

Related projects

Astrid Kander, Magnus Jiborn, Daniel Moran, Rolf Färe, Hana Nielsen, Viktoras Kulionis & Tobias Nielsen

Swedish Energy Agency


Project: ResearchInternational collaboration

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