Continuous optical 3D printing of green aliphatic polyurethanes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Photosensitive diurethanes were prepared from a green chemistry synthesis pathway based on methacrylate-functionalized six-membered cyclic carbonate and biogenic amines. A continuous optical 3D printing method for the diurethanes was developed to create user-defined gradient stiffness and smooth complex surface microstructures in seconds. The green chemistry-derived polyurethane (gPU) showed high optical transparency, and we demonstrate the ability to tune the material stiffness of the printed structure along a gradient by controlling the exposure time and selecting various amine compounds. High-resolution 3D biomimetic structures with smooth curves and complex contours were printed using our gPU. High cell viability (over 95%) was demonstrated during cytocompatibility testing using C3H 10T1/2 cells seeded directly on the printed structures.


  • Sang Hyun Pyo
  • Pengrui Wang
  • Henry H. Hwang
  • Jun-Wei Zhu
  • John O. Warner
  • Shaochen Chen
External organisations
  • University of California, San Diego
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Materials Chemistry
  • Polymer Technologies


  • 3D printing, Biocompatibility, Biomimicry structure, Continuous optical printing, Gradient stiffness fabrication, Green polyurethane
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)836-844
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Publication categoryResearch