Creating sound immission mimicking real-life characteristics from a single wind turbine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This paper describes a method to synthesise wind turbine sounds to be used in sleep studies using a parameter-based synthesis. The parameter values were determined using recordings of several types of operating wind turbines, thorough investigations of the recorded sounds, previous reports on wind turbine sound characteristics, and acoustic knowledge on how sound properties change from source to an outdoor receiver. The different wind turbine types are shown in the paper to have characteristic amplitude modulation (AM) spectra, with different AM strengths in different 1/3 octave bands. The statistical levels of the AM are evaluated and the correlation between A-weighted AM and AM in individual 1/3 octave bands is evaluated using linear regression. Method tests of the proposed synthesis technique show that it performs well and that wind turbine sound signals that include arbitrary AM spectra can be created. The work was part of the research project WiTNES (Wind Turbine Noise Effects on Sleep).


  • Pontus Thorsson
  • Kerstin Persson Waye
  • Mikael Ögren
  • Michael Smith
  • Eja Pedersen
  • Jens Forssén
External organisations
  • Chalmers University of Technology
  • University of Gothenburg
  • Akustikverkstan AB
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Environmental Health and Occupational Health


  • Amplitude modulation, Sleep study, Wind turbine noise
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)66-73
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Acoustics
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1
Publication categoryResearch