Cropland changes in times of conflict, reconstruction, and economic development in Iraqi Kurdistan

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Cropland changes in times of conflict, reconstruction, and economic development in Iraqi Kurdistan

AU - Eklund, Lina

AU - Persson, Andreas

AU - Pilesjö, Petter

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - The destruction of land and forced migration during the Anfal attacks against the Kurds in Iraq in the late 1980s has been reported to have severe consequences for agricultural development. A reconstruction program to aid people in returning to their lands was launched in 1991. To assess the agricultural situation in the Duhok governorate during the pre-Anfal (A), post-Anfal (B), reconstruction (C), and present (D) periods, we mapped winter crops by focusing on inter-annual variability in vegetation greenness, using satellite images. The results indicate a decrease in cultivated area between period A and B, and a small increase between period B and C. This supports reports of a decline in cultivated area related to the Anfal campaign, and indicates increased activity during the reconstruction program. Period D showed a potential recovery with a cropland area similar to period A.

AB - The destruction of land and forced migration during the Anfal attacks against the Kurds in Iraq in the late 1980s has been reported to have severe consequences for agricultural development. A reconstruction program to aid people in returning to their lands was launched in 1991. To assess the agricultural situation in the Duhok governorate during the pre-Anfal (A), post-Anfal (B), reconstruction (C), and present (D) periods, we mapped winter crops by focusing on inter-annual variability in vegetation greenness, using satellite images. The results indicate a decrease in cultivated area between period A and B, and a small increase between period B and C. This supports reports of a decline in cultivated area related to the Anfal campaign, and indicates increased activity during the reconstruction program. Period D showed a potential recovery with a cropland area similar to period A.

KW - Agriculture

KW - Conflict

KW - Crop phenology

KW - Iraqi Kurdistan

KW - NDVI

U2 - 10.1007/s13280-015-0686-0

DO - 10.1007/s13280-015-0686-0

M3 - Article

C2 - 26202089

VL - 45

SP - 78

EP - 88

JO - Ambio: a Journal of Human Environment

JF - Ambio: a Journal of Human Environment

SN - 0044-7447

IS - 1

ER -