Cyberbullying and cybervictimization among preadolescents: Does time perspective matter?

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Time perspective has been recognized as an important psychological dimension with a pervasive and powerful influence on human behavior. To the authors’ knowledge, no studies have focused on the relationship between time perspective and cyberbullying behavior. The first aim of this research is to fill this gap by investigating the relationship between different time perspectives and both cyberbullying and cybervictimization among 6th to 8th grade students. The second objective was to investigate the relationship between time perspective, cyberbullying behaviors, peer problems, and the quality of relationship with teachers. A sample consisting of 403 students aged between 11 and 14 years from Italian middle schools (56% females, mean age = 12.2 years) were recruited. Participants filled in a self-report questionnaire measuring cyberbullying and cybervictimization as well as the Time Perspective questionnaire. The analyses showed the presence of significant correlations between time perspective and both cyberbullying and cybervictimization. In particular, cybervictimization showed a quite large positive correlation with a past-negative orientation and a negative correlation with past-positive orientation. Instead, the involvement in active cyberbullying was positively correlated with a past-negative orientation and negatively correlated with future orientation. The findings advance the understanding of psychological factors influencing cyberbullying during early adolescence and suggest the importance of past-positive and past-negative orientations in accounting for both active cyberbullying and cybervictimization. As expected, future orientation appeared to represent a protective factor against involvement in cyberbullying behaviors.


  • Claudio Longobardi
  • Giulia Gullotta
  • Serena Ferrigno
  • Tomas Jungert
  • Robert Thornberg
  • Michele Settanni
External organisations
  • University of Turin
  • Linköping University
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Psychology


  • Cyberbullying, Cybervictimization, early adolescence, externalizing symptoms, teacher-student relationship, time perspective
Original languageEnglish
JournalScandinavian Journal of Psychology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2020
Publication categoryResearch