Defining goals in participatory water management: merging local visions and expert judgements

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Management by objectives is intrinsic to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Swedish environmental policy. We describe three approaches to formulating objectives via model-assisted dialogue with local stakeholders concerning eutrophication in a coastal drainage area in south-eastern Sweden: a WFD eco-centred approach based on 'natural state'; Swedish environmental policy reformulated into quantified reduction goals; and a participatory approach based on local stakeholder definitions of desirable environmental status. Despite problems with representation, we conclude that local stakeholder participation in formulating local goals could increase goal functionality and robustness when adapting and implementing national and EU WFD goals at the local level.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Social Sciences Interdisciplinary


  • goal formulation, stakeholder involvement, local, management by objectives (MBO), participatory water management
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)909-935
JournalJournal of Environmental Planning and Management
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Publication categoryResearch