Demand and welfare effects in recreational travel models: Accounting for substitution between number of trips and days to stay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In this paper we present a non-linear demand system for households' joint choice of number of trips and days to spend at a destination. The approach, which facilitates welfare analysis of exogenous policy and price changes, is used empirically to study the effects of an increased CO2 tax. In particular, we focus on the effect of including substitution between households choice of the number of trips and days to spend at a destination in the welfare analysis. The analysis reveals that the equivalent variation (EV) measure, for the count data demand system, can be seen as an upper bound for the households welfare loss. Approximating the welfare loss by the change in consumer surplus, accounting for the positive effect from longer stays, imposes a lower bound on the households welfare loss. The difference in the estimated loss measures, from the considered CO2 tax reform, is about 20%. This emphasizes the importance of accounting for substitutions toward longer stays in travel demand policy evaluations. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Economics


  • Demand analysis, Welfare effects, Count data, Bivariate zero inflation
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)446-456
JournalTransportation Research. Part A: Policy & Practice
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Publication categoryResearch