Denitrification at low temperatures using a suspended carrier biofilm process

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title = "Denitrification at low temperatures using a suspended carrier biofilm process",
abstract = "The denitrification process was studied in a stirred lab-scale suspended carrier biofilm reactor at low temperatures (3–20°C). The reactor was filled to 50% with Kaldnes K1 carriers. The denitrification rate showed only a rather weak dependence on the temperature, the rate at 3°C being approximately 55% of that at 15°C. The maximum denitrification rate obtained at 15°C was 2.7 g NOx−-N m−2 carrier d−1. The maximum denitrification rate at 3°C during an 8-day period was found to be constant. During the 8 days, the hydraulic retention time was approximately 1.5 h and the inlet NO3−-N concentration was 30 mg l−1.",
keywords = "Psychrotrophic microorganisms, Suspended carrier, Biofilm, Temperature, Denitrification",
author = "Ulrika Welander and Bo Mattiasson",
year = "2003",
doi = "10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00019-8",
language = "English",
volume = "37",
pages = "2394--2398",
journal = "Water Research",
issn = "1879-2448",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "10",