Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and dermatan 4-O-sulfotransferase 1 form complexes that generate long epimerized 4-O-sulfated blocks
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During the biosynthesis of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/ DS), a variable fraction of glucuronic acid is converted to iduronic acid through the activities of two epimerases, dermatan sulfate epimerases 1 (DS-epi1) and 2 (DS-epi2). Previous in vitro studies indicated that without association with other enzymes, DS-epi1 activity produces structures that have only a few adjacent iduronic acid units. In vivo, concomitant with epimerization, dermatan 4-O-sulfotransferase 1 (D4ST1) sulfates the GalNAc adjacent to iduronic acid. This sulfation facilitates DS-epi1 activity and enables the formation of long blocks of sulfated iduronic acid– containing domains, which can be major components of CS/DS. In this report, we used recombinant enzymes to confirm the concerted action of DS-epi1 and D4ST1. Confocal microscopy revealed that these two enzymes colocalize to the Golgi, and FRET experiments indicated that they physically interact. Furthermore, FRET, immunoprecipitation, and cross-linking experiments also revealed that DS-epi1, DS-epi2, and D4ST1 form homomers and are all part of a hetero-oligomeric complex where D4ST1 directly interacts with DS-epi1, but not with DS-epi2. The cooperation of DS-epi1 with D4ST1 may therefore explain the processive mode of the formation of iduronic acid blocks. In conclusion, the iduronic acid–forming enzymes operate in complexes, similar to other enzymes active in glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis. This knowledge shed light on regulatory mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of the structurally diverse CS/DS molecule.
|Research areas and keywords||
Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 2018|