Design and fabrication of a conceptual arterial ultrasound phantom capable of exhibiting longitudinal wall movement

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The longitudinal movement of the arterial wall of large human arteries has shown promise to be an independent indicator of vascular health. Despite growing interest in this movement, its nature, causes, and implications are not fully understood, and existing phantoms have failed to show a pure longitudinal movement that is not secondary to the distension. An often overlooked aspect of the arterial wall is the interaction between the different layers. The longitudinal movement of the innermost layers, the intima and media, can be several hundred micrometers in the direction of flow during early systole. This is markedly larger than that of the adventitia, indicating that sliding occurs between the two layers. This feature was incorporated into a phantom by casting it in two parts. The molds were developed in-house using mainly a 3-D printer, a versatile and easy production method. Additionally, the phantom contains a tapered region. Using the phantom, we were able to demonstrate a pure longitudinal movement; when it was subjected to a pulsatile pressure, the wall displaced 220 μm (SD 40) radially and 560 μm (SD 74) longitudinally distal to the tapering. The motion followed the pressure variations. This paper serves as a guide for phantom production, explaining each step of the process.


External organisations
  • Lund University
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
  • Medical Image Processing


  • Additive manufacturing, artery, longitudinal displacement, phantom, pressure, ultrasound
Original languageEnglish
Article number7529216
Pages (from-to)11-18
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 1
Publication categoryResearch