Determinants for non-sentinel node metastases in primary invasive breast cancer: A population-based cohort study of 602 consecutive patients with sentinel node metastases
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Background: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is the standard procedure for axillary staging in patients with clinically lymph node negative invasive breast cancer. Completion axillary lymph node dissection (c-ALND) may not be necessary for all patients as a significant number of patients have no further metastases in non-sentinel nodes (non-SN) and c-ALND may not improve survival. The first aim of our study is to identify clinicopathological determinants associated with non-SN metastases. The second aim is to determine the impact of the number of sentinel node (SN) with macro-metastases and the type of SN metastases on metastatic involvement in non-SN. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 602 patients with primary invasive breast cancer operated on with SNB and c-ALND in Lund and Malmö during 2008-2013. All these patients had micro- and/or macro-metastases in SNs. Information was retrieved from the national Information Network for Cancer Care (INCA). The risk of metastases to non-SNs were analyzed in relation to clinicopathological determinants such as age, screening mammography, tumour size, tumour type, histological grade, estrogen status, progesterone status, HER2 status, multifocality and lymphovascular invasion. Additionally, we compared the association between the number of the SN and the type of metastases in SN with the risk of metastases to non-SNs. Binary logistic regression was used, yielding odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: We found that 211 patients (35%) had metastases in non-SNs and 391 patients (65%) had no metastases in non-SNs. Lobular type (18%) of breast cancer (1.73; 1.0 1-2.97) and multifocal (31.3%) tumours (2.20; 1.41-3.44) had a high risk of non-SNs metastases. As compared to only micro-metastases, the presence of macro-metastases in SNs was associated with a high risk of metastases to non-SNs (4.91; 3.01-8.05). The number of SN with macro-metastases, regardless of the number of SNs removed by surgery, increases the risk of finding non-SNs with metastases. The total number of SN removed by surgery had no impact on diagnosis of metastases in non-SNs. No statistically significant associations were observed regarding other studied determinants. Conclusion: We conclude in the present study that lobular cancer and multifocal tumours were associated with a high risk of non-SN involvement. The presence of the macro-metastases in SNs and the number of SN with macro-metastases has a positive association with presence of metastases in non-SNs. The total number of SNs removed by surgery had no impact on finding metastases in non-SNs. These factors may be valuable considering whether or not to omit c-ALND.
|Research areas and keywords||
Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY
|Publication status||Published - 2019 Jun 25|