Developing consensus among movement disorder specialists on clinical indicators for identification and management of advanced Parkinson’s disease: a multi-country Delphi-panel approach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: Lack of a global consensus on the definition of advanced Parkinson’s disease (APD) and considerations for timing of device-aided therapies may result in heterogeneity in care. Objectives: To reach consensus among movement disorder specialists regarding key patient characteristics indicating transition to APD and guiding appropriate use of device-aided therapies in the management of PD symptoms. Methods: A Delphi-panel approach was utilized to synthesize opinions of movement disorder specialists and build consensus. Results: A panel was comprised of movement disorder specialists from 10 European countries with extensive experience of treating PD patients (mean =24.8 ± 7.2 years). Consensus on indicators of suspected APD and eligibility for device-aided therapies were based on motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms, and functional impairments. Key indicators of APD included: (i) motor—moderate troublesome motor fluctuations, ≥1 h of troublesome dyskinesia/day, ≥2 h “off” symptoms/day, and ≥5-times oral levodopa doses/day; (ii) non-motor—mild dementia, and non-transitory troublesome hallucinations; (iii) functional impairment—repeated falls despite optimal treatment, and difficulty with activities of daily living. Patients with good levodopa response, good cognition, and <70 years of age were deemed as good candidates for all three device-aided therapies. Patients with troublesome dyskinesia were considered good candidates for both levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). PD patients with levodopa-resistant tremor were considered good candidates for DBS. Conclusion: Identifying patients progressing to APD and suitable for device-aided therapies will enable general neurologists to assess the need for referral to movement disorder specialists and improve the quality of care and patient outcomes.


  • Angelo Antonini
  • A. Jon Stoessl
  • Leah S. Kleinman
  • Anne M. Skalicky
  • Thomas S. Marshall
  • Kavita R. Sail
  • Koray Onuk
  • Per Lars Anders Odin
External organisations
  • University of Padova
  • AbbVie Inc.
  • Pacific Parkinson's Research Institute
  • Evidera Ltd
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Neurology


  • Continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI), Deep brain stimulation (DBS), Delphi technique, Dyskinesia, Levodopa-Carbidopa Intestinal Gel (LCIG), Motor fluctuations, Parkinson disease, Patient identification, Wearing-off
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2063-2073
JournalCurrent Medical Research and Opinion
Issue number12
Early online date2018 Aug 20
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Dec 2
Publication categoryResearch