Development and functional demonstration of a wireless intraoral inductive tongue computer interface for severely disabled persons

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose: Individuals with tetraplegia depend on alternative interfaces in order to control computers and other electronic equipment. Current interfaces are often limited in the number of available control commands, and may compromise the social identity of an individual due to their undesirable appearance. The purpose of this study was to implement an alternative computer interface, which was fully embedded into the oral cavity and which provided multiple control commands. Methods: The development of a wireless, intraoral, inductive tongue computer was described. The interface encompassed a 10-key keypad area and a mouse pad area. This system was embedded wirelessly into the oral cavity of the user. The functionality of the system was demonstrated in two tetraplegic individuals and two able-bodied individuals Results: The system was invisible during use and allowed the user to type on a computer using either the keypad area or the mouse pad. The maximal typing rate was 1.8 s for repetitively typing a correct character with the keypad area and 1.4 s for repetitively typing a correct character with the mouse pad area. Conclusion: The results suggest that this inductive tongue computer interface provides an esthetically acceptable and functionally efficient environmental control for a severely disabled user.Implications for RehabilitationNew Design, Implementation and detection methods for intra oral assistive devices.Demonstration of wireless, powering and encapsulation techniques suitable for intra oral embedment of assistive devices.Demonstration of the functionality of a rechargeable and fully embedded intra oral tongue controlled computer input device.


  • Lotte N. S. Andreasen Struijk
  • Eugen R. Lontis
  • Michael Gaihede
  • Hector A. Caltenco
  • Morten Enemark Lund
  • Henrik Schioeler
  • Bo Bentsen
External organisations
  • Aalborg University
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Human Computer Interaction


  • environmental control, neuro rehabilitation, tetraplegia, Tongue computer interfaces
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)631-640
JournalDisability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology
Issue number6
Early online date2016 Sep 15
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Aug 18
Publication categoryResearch