Development and Validation of an Empirical Equation to Predict Sweating Skin Surface Temperature for Thermal Manikins

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingPaper in conference proceeding


Thermal manikins are useful tools to study the clothing comfort and environmental ergonomics.
The simulation of sweating can be achieved by putting a highly wicking stretchable knit fabric “skin” on top
of the manikin. However, the addition of such a fabric skin makes it is difficult to accurately measure the
skin surface temperature. Moreover, it takes considerable amount of time to measure the fabric skin surface
temperature for each test. At present the attachment of temperature sensors to the wet fabric skin is still a
challenge. The distance of the sensors to the fabric skin could significantly influence the temperature and
relative humidity values of the wet skin surface. Hence, we conducted an intensive skin study on a dry
thermal manikin to investigate the relationships among the nude manikin surface temperature, heat losses
and the fabric skin surface temperature. An empirical equation was developed and validated on the thermal
manikin "Tore" at Lund University. The empirical equation at ambient temperature 34 oC is Tsk =34.00-
0.0103HL. This equation can be used to enhance the prediction accuracy on the sweating skin surface
temperature and the calculation of clothing evaporative resistance.


  • Faming Wang
  • Kalev Kuklane
  • Chuansi Gao
  • Ingvar Holmér
  • George Havenith
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics


  • empirical equation, isothermal, skin surface temperature, fabric skin, thermal manikin, clothing ensemble
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTextile Bioengineering and Informatics Symposium Proceedings
EditorsYi Li, Yiping Qiu, Xiaonan Luo, Jiashen Li
PublisherTextile Bioengineering and Informatics Society Limited
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Publication categoryResearch
Event3rd International Symposium of Textile Bioengineering and Informatics - Shanghai, China
Duration: 2010 May 282010 May 30

Publication series

ISSN (Print)1942-3438


Conference3rd International Symposium of Textile Bioengineering and Informatics