Development of Nanoimprint Lithography for Fabrication of Electrochemical Transducers

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis (compilation)


This thesis gives an overview about the current status of nanoimprint lithography, a relatively new nanofabrication tool. The technology is capable for parallel mass production of nm-structured features having a resolution below 10 nm and is usable with high throughput on full wafer scale. The thesis is mainly divided into two parts dealing with nanoimprint lithography and electrochemistry.

The work concerns the development of reliable and reproducible imprint processes, e.g. for fabrication of nm-structured interdigitated array electrodes usable in (bio-) electrochemical sensor applications. Such electrodes can be used for measuring electrochemical processes such as redox cycling, which become addressable when the electrode distance becomes smaller than the diffusion layer thickness at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The process development addresses several issues such as: (i) Production of nanoimprint stamps/molds with electron beam and UV-lithography. (ii) Evaluation of new polymers especially developed for nanoimprint lithography. (iii) Anti-adhesion treatment of different imprint molds with molecular layers and (iv) their characterization with photoelectron spectroscopy. (v) Development of post-imprint processes for substrate etching or metal lift-off. (vi) Deposition of non-corroding alternative organic adhesion promoters for gold on silicon dioxide. (vii) Evaluation of fluorescence microscopy as a tool for quality control in industrial nanoimprint processes.

The electrochemistry part deals mainly with theoretical electrochemistry as we teach it in the biophysics course given at the department and is supposed to be used as course literature. Parallel to the NIL process development electrochemical equipment was built and evaluated with some standard measurements presented in this thesis. The outcome of this development was used to build a more advanced instrument suitable for redox cycling with nm-structured electrodes. First results with nm-structured electrodes are compared with mm-structured ones.


  • Marc Beck
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Condensed Matter Physics


  • electrochemistry, interdigitated array, anti-adhesion, anti-sticking, stamp, mold, monolayer deposition, Fysik, post-imprint processes, Physics, transducer, nanoimprint lithography, sensor, Fysicumarkivet A:2003:Beck
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
Supervisors/Assistant supervisor
  • [unknown], [unknown], Supervisor, External person
Award date2003 Jun 13
  • Division of Solid State Physics, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden,
Publication statusPublished - 2003
Publication categoryResearch

Bibliographic note

Defence details Date: 2003-06-13 Time: 13:15 Place: Room B, Dept of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology External reviewer(s) Name: Gobrecht, Jens Title: Dr Affiliation: Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Schweiz --- Article: I. Fabrication of Si-based nanoimprint stamps with sub-20 nmfeaturesI. Maximov, E.-L. Sarwe, M. Beck, K. Deppert, M. Graczyk, M.H. Magnusson, L. MonteliusMicroelectronic Engineering 61-62 (2002) pp.449-454 Article: II. Polymer stamps for nanoimprintingK. Pfeiffer, M. Fink, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, F. Reuther, J. Seekamp, S. Zankovych, C.M. Sotomayor Torres, I. Maximov, M. Beck, M. Graczyk, L. Montelius, H. Schulz, H.-C. Scheer, F. SteingrueberMicroelectronic Engineering 61-62 (2002) pp.393-398 Article: III. Improving stamps for 10 nm level wafer scale nanoimprint lithographyM. Beck, M. Graczyk, I. Maximov, E.-L. Sarwe, T.G.I. Ling, M. Keil, L. MonteliusMicroelectronic Engineering 61-62 (2002) pp.441-448 Article: IV. Development and characterization of anti-sticking layers on silicon based stamps designed for nanoimprint lithographyM. Keil, M. Beck, T.G.I. Ling, M. Graczyk, L. Montelius, B. Heidari(submitted) Article: V. Development and characterization of anti-sticking layers on nickel based stamps designed for nanoimprint lithographyM. Keil, M. Beck, T.G.I. Ling, M. Graczyk, L. Montelius, B. Heidari(submitted) Article: VI. Nanoimprint-induced effects on electrical and optical properties of quantum well structuresS. Zankovych, I. Maximov, I. Shorubalko, J. Seekamp, M. Beck, S. Romanov, D. Reuter, P. Schafmeister, A.D. Wieck, J. Ahopelto, C.M. Sotomayor Torres, L. Monteliusin press, Microelectronic Engineering (2003) Article: VII. Nanoimprint technology for fabrication of three-terminal ballistic junction devices in GaInAs/InPI. Maximov, P. Carlberg, I. Shorubalko, D. Wallin, E-L. Sarwe, M. Beck, M. Graczyk, W. Seifert, H.Q. Xu, L. Montelius, L. Samuelsonin press, Microelectronic Engineering (2003) Article: VIII. Lift-off process for nanoimprint lithographyP. Carlberg, M Graczyk, E.-L. Sarwe, I. Maximov, M. Beck, L. Monteliusin press, Microelectronic Engineering (2003). Article: IX. Fluorescence microscopy for quality control in nanoimprint lithographyCh. Finder, M. Beck, J. Seekamp, K. Pfeiffer, P. Carlberg, I. Maximov, F. Reuther, E.-L. Sarwe, S. Zankovich, J. Ahopelto, L. Montelius, C. Mayer, C.M. Sotomayor Torresin press, Microelectronic Engineering (2003). Article: X. Fabrication and characterization of a molecular adhesive layer for micro- and nanofabricated electrochemical electrodesT.G.I. Ling, M. Beck, R. Bunk, E. Forsen, J.O. Tegenfeldt, A.A. Zakharov, L. Monteliusin press, Microelectronic Engineering (2003). Article: XI. Nanoelectrochemical transducers for (bio-) chemical sensor applications fabricated by nanoimprint lithographyM. Beck, P. Carlberg, F. Persson, M. Graczyk, I. Maximov, T.G.I. Ling, L. Montelius(submitted)