Diabetes and impaired fasting glycemia in a rural population of Bangladesh
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OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) in a rural population of Bangladesh. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A cluster sampling of 4,923 subjects >/=20 years old in a rural community were investigated. Fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, height, weight, and girth of waist and hip were measured. BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol were also estimated. We used the 1997 American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The crude prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 4.3% and IFG was 12.4%. The age-standardized prevalence of type 2 diabetes (95% CI) was 3.8% (3.12-4.49) and IFG was 13.0% (11.76-14.16). The subjects with higher family income had significantly higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes (5.9 vs. 3.5%, P < 0.001) and IFG (15.6 vs. 10.8%, P < 0.001) than those with lower income. Employing logistic regression in different models, we found that wealthy class, family history of diabetes, reduced physical exercise, and increased age, BMI, and WHR were the important predictors of diabetes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol showed no association with diabetes and IFG. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of diabetes and IFG in the rural population was found to be on the increase compared with the previous reports of Bangladesh and other Asian studies. Older age, higher obesity, higher income, family history of diabetes, and reduced physical activity were proved significant risk factors for diabetes and IFG, whereas plasma lipids showed no association with diabetes and IFG. Further study may address whether diabetes is causally associated with insulin deficiency or insulin resistance.