Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Esophageal Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort

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@article{170c3928b7bb4060acb22c8679335003,
title = "Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Esophageal Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort",
abstract = "We prospectively investigated dietary flavonoid intake and esophageal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,312 adult subjects from 10 European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. During a mean follow-up of 11 years (1992-2010), there were 341 incident esophageal cancer cases, of which 142 were esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), 176 were esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and 23 were other types of esophageal cancer. In crude models, a doubling in total dietary flavonoid intake was inversely associated with esophageal cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR) (log(2))=0.87, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI): 0.78, 0.98) but not in multi-variable models (HR (log(2))=0.97, 95{\%} CI: 0.86, 1.10). After covariate adjustment, no statistically significant association was found between any flavonoid subclass and esophageal cancer, EAC, or ESCC. However, among current smokers, flavonols were statistically significantly associated with a reduced esophageal cancer risk (HR (log(2)) = 0.72, 95{\%} CI: 0.56, 0.94), whereas total flavonoids, flavanols, and flavan-3-ol monomers tended to be inversely associated with esophageal cancer risk. No associations were found in either never or former smokers. These findings suggest that dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with overall esophageal cancer, EAC, or ESCC risk, although total flavonoids and some flavonoid subclasses, particularly flavonols, may reduce the esophageal cancer risk among current smokers.",
keywords = "esophageal cancer, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and, Nutrition, flavonoids, intake",
author = "Esther Vermeulen and Raul Zamora-Ros and Duell, {Eric J.} and Leila Lujan-Barroso and Heiner Boeing and Krasimira Aleksandrova and Bueno-de-Mesquita, {H. Bas} and Augustin Scalbert and Isabelle Romieu and Veronika Fedirko and Marina Touillaud and Guy Fagherazzi and Florence Perquier and Esther Molina-Montes and Maria-Dolores Chirlaque and Argueelles, {Marcial Vicente} and Pilar Amiano and Aurelio Barricarte and Valeria Pala and Amalia Mattiello and Calogero Saieva and Rosario Tumino and Fulvio Ricceri and Antonia Trichopoulou and Effie Vasilopoulou and Gianna Ziara and Crowe, {Francesca L.} and Kay-Thee Khaw and Wareham, {Nicholas J.} and Effie Vasilopoulou and Gianna Ziara and Crowe, {Francesca L.} and Kay-Thee Khaw and Wareham, {Nicholas J.} and Annekatrin Lukanova and Grote, {Verena A.} and Anne Tjonneland and Jytte Halkjaer and Lea Bredsdorff and Kim Overvad and Siersema, {Peter D.} and Peeters, {Petra H. M.} and May, {Anne M.} and Elisabete Weiderpass and Guri Skeie and Anette Hjartaker and Rikard Landberg and Ingegerd Johansson and Emily Sonestedt and Ulrika Ericson and Elio Riboli and Gonzalez, {Carlos A.}",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1093/aje/kwt026",
language = "English",
volume = "178",
pages = "570--581",
journal = "American journal of hygiene",
issn = "0002-9262",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "4",

}