Dietary recommendations for patients allergic to Anisakis simplex
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BACKGROUND: Anisakis simplex, a fish parasite, causes allergic urticaria, angioedema and anaphylactic shock through an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity mechanism. Consensus on the dietary recommendations that should be given to allergic patients is lacking. Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of different types of diets in preventing further reactions in patients allergic to A. simplex. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult patients, who had suffered an allergic episode caused by A. simplex were asked to follow one of the following three diets for a mean period of 13.16 months: a fish-free diet (diet 1; n = 19), a diet including fish frozen for more than 48 hours (diet 2; n = 9) and a diet with fresh fish (diet 3; n = 12). In all patients raw fish was excluded. Relapse rates and changes in total serum IgE and specific IgE to A. simplex were studied during the follow up. RESULTS: During the 13-month follow-up none of the patients developed anaphylaxis. Urticaria symptoms were present in 5.8 %, 11.1 % (n.s) and 33.3 % (p = 0.016) of patients following diets 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Total IgE decreased by 64 % (p < 0.05), 48 % (p < 0.05) and 39.4 % (p < 0.05), respectively. Specific IgE to A. simplex decreased by 50.7 % (p < 0.05), 54.1 % (p < 0.05) and 23.6 % (p < 0.05) after diets 1, 2 and 3, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found among the groups in variations in total and specific IgE. CONCLUSIONS: Patients allergic to A. simplex can eat fish that has been frozen at -20 C for 48 hours without risk of a severe allergic reaction. Long term decreases in specific and total IgE may not be good markers of eventual contact with A. simplex.
|Research areas and keywords||
Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY
|Journal||Allergologia et Immunopathologia|
|Publication status||Published - 2002|