Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: the EPIC-InterAct study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including eight countries with large geographical variation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Using a case-cohort design, 11 245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N = 15 798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. Twenty-four-hour diet-recall data from a subsample (N = 2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95% CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22) (P-trend = 0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect (HR (95% CI)) using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 mg/day dietary vitamin D. CONCLUSIONS: This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type 2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person.


  • S. Abbas
  • J. Linseisen
  • S. Rohrmann
  • J. W. J. Beulens
  • B. Buijsse
  • P. Amiano
  • E. Ardanaz
  • B. Balkau
  • H. Boeing
  • F. Clavel-Chapelon
  • G. Fagherazzi
  • D. Gavrila
  • S. Grioni
  • R. Kaaks
  • T. J. Key
  • K. T. Khaw
  • T. Kuehn
  • A. Mattiello
  • E. Molina-Montes
  • P. M. Nilsson
  • K. Overvad
  • J. R. Quiros
  • O. Rolandsson
  • C. Sacerdote
  • C. Saieva
  • N. Slimani
  • I. Sluijs
  • A. M. W. Spijkerman
  • A. Tjonneland
  • R. Tumino
  • D. L. van der A
  • R. Zamora-Ros
  • S. J. Sharp
  • C. Langenberg
  • N. G. Forouhi
  • E. Riboli
  • N. J. Wareham
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Nutrition and Dietetics


  • vitamin D, type 2 diabetes, dietary intake, observational study, EPIC
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)196-202
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Publication categoryResearch